Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Influence of Realism on Literature :: Literature Realism

Influence of Realism on Literature After World War I, American people and the authors among them were left disillusioned by the effects that war had on their society. America needed a literature that would explain what had happened and what was happening to their society. American writers turned to what is now known as modernism. The influence of 19th Century realism and naturalism and their truthful representation of American life and people was evident in post World War I modernism. This paper will try to prove this by presenting the basic ideas and of these literary genres, literary examples of each, and then make connections between the two literary movements. Realism Modernism not only depicted American society after World War I accurately and unbiasedly, but also tried to find the solutions brought upon by the suffering created by the war (Elliott 705). The realistic movement of the late 19th century saw authors accurately depict life and it’s problems. Realists attempted to â€Å"give a comprehensive picture of modern life† (Elliott 502) by presenting the entire picture. They did not try to give one view of life but instead attempted to show the different classes, manners, and stratification of life in America. Realists created this picture of America by combining a wide variety of â€Å"details derived from observation and documentation...† to â€Å"approach the norm of experience...† (3). Along with this technique, realists compared the â€Å"objective or absolute existence† in America to that of the â€Å"universal truths, or observed facts of life† (Harvey 12). In other words, realists objectively looked at American society and pointed out the aspects that it had in common with the general truths of existence. This realistic movement evolved as a result of many changes and transitions in American culture. In the late 1800’s, the United States was experiencing â€Å"swift growth and change† as a result of a changing economy, society, and culture because of an influx in the number of immigrants into America. Realists such as Henry James and William Dean Howells, two of the most prolific writers of the Nineteenth-century, used typical realistic methods to create an accurate depiction of changing American life.

Monday, January 13, 2020

The Alcoholics Anonymous

During the Alcoholics Anonymous meeting I attended, my eyes were opened to the disease of addiction. When I walked into the meeting, I introduced myself and announced that I am a nursing student and was there to observe. In sync, all of the people attending the meeting greeted me. Twelve people took turns to read the twelve steps on the road to recovery. After the twelve steps were read everyone introduced themselves and then everyone greeted them at once. It was announced that each person that was there for addiction had only had five minutes to share their story.The Alcoholics Anonymous meeting was definitely a reality check for me. There were many people that were there that announced that they were an addict that did not look or act like an addict. Many described the third step to be the most difficult of the twelve steps. The third step is transferring yourself to God or a higher power to get you through your addiction. At first this did not make sense to me, but I realized that addicts naturally need control over situations.So when they hand over themselves and their addictions to a higher power it is like they are stepping down from having control. It is as if they will not make any wrong decisions because their higher power is in control. So if they do make a wrong decision they feel it is not their fault which I do not agree with. The difference between NA and AA is that AA believes you are clean as long as you did not have any alcohol, but NA believes you are clean as long as you did not have any mood or mind altering substances, which includes alcohol.I definitely enjoyed NA better than AA because it was more fulfilling and not so ignorant to the actual idea of addiction. AA believes in trading one addiction for another even if it is more dangerous than alcohol. It is not said at the AA meeting that this is the case, but that is what I got from it. At the end of the meeting they also said the serenity prayer like the NA meetings in a circle.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Essay on The Facts about Skin Cancer - 898 Words

Skin Cancer What is Skin Cancer? Skin cancer: is created by a malignant growth of cells that are found on the outer layers of the skin. Quite a few types of cancers can grow in the skin. The two common ones are basal and squamous cell carcinoma. These two are preferably known as non-melanoma skin cancer. What are the causes of Skin Cancer? Skin cancer is typically caused by long term exposures to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation can damage our genetic information (DNA) in the cells enabling them to deteriorate, or not have the ability to function properly causing them to multiply out of control. In addition to obtaining skin cancer from UV radiation, the environment can play a great factor towards our health. The two types of†¦show more content†¦To detect if a patient or someone has developed skin cancer, a doctor must carefully examine their body. The doctor needs to spot the growths, moles, and dry patches to see if any changes had appeared. In order to get a better look, the dermatologists use a tool called a dermascope. This device is used to reflect light on the skin. It expands the skin allowing the doctor to be exposed to the different layers and tincture of the skin. If the doctor detects skin irregularities, the doctor can remove it or at least some small parts. The extra skin cells will be sent off to a laboratory in order to run tests on the substance. This is called a biopsy. A biopsy can be a diagnostic method to see if someone has skin cancer. This is very crucial step because without a biopsy it is impossible to seek clarification. Different forms of treatments provided for Skin Cancer? Depending on where it is found on the body, how it appears and if it is aggressive, doctors may be able to treat it. The different options for treating skin cancer are: †¢ Surgical treatment: the main purpose is to remove the cancer before it spreads, which may be impossible. Doctors often engage in these other procedures: †¢ Excision: The doctors uses anesthesia to solidify the patient’s skin. The doctors then surgically cut the skin and removeShow MoreRelatedSkin Cancer Essay1178 Words   |  5 PagesSymptoms of Skin Cancer The Causes and symptoms of Skin Cancer While tanning beds and extreme use/exposure to UV rays are ways to get skin cancer, there are also various other ways to get it. Many don’t know that genetics and traits can actually play a huge role in developing this dangerous disease. They also don’t know that skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the U.S. today. According to the Skin Cancer Foundation more people over the last 300 years have had skin cancer than all ofRead MoreSkin Cancer and the Elderly Essays1008 Words   |  5 Pagesnaturally otherwise. When reports about the negative effects of UV light came about, I constantly heard â€Å"Oh, it won’t happen to me, I will deal with that when I’m older, but for now I’m going to continue tanning.† Today, skin cancer â€Å"is the most common type of cancer in the U.S.† (Ferrini, 2008). It is also the most dangerous for elders merely because of that mindset, â€Å"Oh, I’ll worry about it later;† that is exactly what happens for those who develop skin cancer. I have seen a minimal decrease inRead MoreThe System Of The Human Body1429 Words   |  6 Pagesin the function of the human body. The system is made up of the skin and skin derivatives such as hair, nails, glands and receptors and provides the body with a line of defence against foreign, infectious pathogens (Moore et al., 2013). The skin is the most vulnerable organ to injury and disease as it is an external organ and the largest organ of the body, contributing to approximately 15% of the body’s weight (Hackman, 2014). The skin also helps to maintain homeostasis in the body as well as containingRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Basal Cell Carcinomas961 Words   |  4 PagesSection 2: The article is referring about skin cancers, most specifically, Basal Cell Carcinomas. The article states the facts in a much more detailed manner, stating that indeed people who expose themselves to ultraviolet rays for prolonged perio d of time, some form of abnormalities such as skin cancer may occur. Section 3: the reasoning on this article was to convince and to point out the facts that indeed an individual can develop Basal Cell carcinoma overtime due to [prolonged exposures to ultravioletRead Moreas stated earlier in the essay, the incidence of people treated for skin cancer compared to the800 Words   |  4 Pagestreated for skin cancer compared to the population means that two percent of the population will be treated or diagnosed every year however there is a group particularly affected by these statistics. According to the Cancer Council Australia (2014), non-melanoma skin cancer is more common in men than in women, this may be due to the fact that men may wear less when going out in the sun and will take risks more, possibly by not wearing protective clothing and sunscreen. As well as this fact it is alsoRead MoreAn Effective Skin Cancer Prevention Strategy1139 Words   |  5 Pageswould not recommend this as an effective skin cancer prevention strategy. While the strategies mentioned in this section can still be used to prevent skin cancer, they have some defects that prevent them from being the main prevention strategies. Some of them are as a result of them having a short term benefit but long term disadvantage such as the Resurfacing Procedures while other like funding more research do not guarantee effectiveness to prevent skin cancer. Key Strategies Chromic diseases areRead MoreTypes of Cancer1236 Words   |  5 PagesCancer Research Task Types of Cancer: Carcinoma - is a cancer that lines the surface of the skin, glands, organs which are the epithelial tissue. Sarcoma- is a cancer that grows on the cartilage, fat, bone, muscle and tendons which are the connective tissues in the body. Leukaemia- is a cancer of the bone marrow and affects the blood, lymphatic and immune system. I have decided to do my Cancer Research task on skin cancer as it is a very common form of cancer and my grandpaRead MoreShould Sunblock Be Applied Every Day?956 Words   |  4 Pagesdefinitely not the case, sunblock should be applied every day, a couple times during the day for added measure to protect the skin from the harmful ultraviolet B (UVB), and ultraviolet A (UVA) sun rays. There are many different theories of the right amount of sun protection factor or SPF level for protection against painful sunburns, blisters, sores and possibly skin cancer. Going to the store can be challenging when looking for a sunblock to purchase that will be the right form of defense becauseRead MoreEssay about Skin Cancer in Relation to the Ottawa Charter1339 Words   |  6 PagesPDHPE SKIN CANCER Cancer is the second largest cause of death in Australia and accounts for approximately 27% of all deaths. Risk factors generally include exposure to sun, poor diet and smoking. Many types of cancer such as skin cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer are easily preventable by early detection and awareness; however, some cancers cannot be prevented. The National Skin Cancer Awareness Program represents the new public health approach. This is because it has been created to preventRead MoreMelanoma Skin Cancer Essay1064 Words   |  5 Pageslargest organ of the human body is your skin. It is your body’s first line of defense against infections, injuries, heat, and sunlight. It also helps in controlling the temperature of your body and getting rid of the excess water and salt by sweating it out. Skin cancer is also known as cancer of the sun. Excessive amounts of ultra violet lights affect your skin in negative ways, possibly leading to Melanoma skin cancer. Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer there is and can often times be fatal

Saturday, December 28, 2019

Importance Of Math Skills At An Early Age Essay - 1432 Words

Purpose Statement Math is an important and essential skill used in everyday life and as educators we need to provide the opportunity for young children to experience and learn these skills. As an adult, we use math to tell time, buying food and goods, cooking, and planning for finances and setting a budget. These are important skills and all involve the use of math, even a game as simple as pool involves the use of geometry and angles when planning shots. The program I currently work for scores low in math every year, and even after trainings and interventions it remains low. What do we need to do to improve our scores and what questions do we need to begin to ask ourselves in-order to begin to improve this area of child development? Focus Questions 1. How can an Early Childhood Educator provide activities and strategies to promote lifelong math literacy skills for three to five year olds? 2. What are the benefits of learning math skills at an early age for three to five year olds? 3. How can an Early Childhood Educator incorporate reading literacy skills into everyday math literacy skills with three to five year olds? Thesis Statement Early Childhood Educators must know the benefits of implementing math literacy, have knowledge of activities and strategies to promote math literacy and incorporate reading literacy with every day math concepts for 3 - 5 year old students in an early childhood setting. How can an Early Childhood Educator provide activities andShow MoreRelatedThe Importance of Early Childhood Education1141 Words   |  5 PagesThe Importance of Early Childhood Education It is crucial for a child to receive early education because it is the time for growing, forming, and brain development. Children between the ages of 0 to 6 go through stages of acquiring specific skills like, sensorial, language, math, social, and cognitive. In those stages children have the ability to soak up and retain information, some people say like a sponge. As parents it is our duty to make sure we are stimulating our children’s mind between theRead MoreEarly Childhood Education Of Children1122 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Early roots of play as a best practice for early learning was documented by Plato, a Greek philosopher, who insisted that play is considered a natural activity of childhood.†(Ingrid Crowther, 2011, Pg. 2) Early Childhood Education is a term that refers to educational programs that are devoted to children from birth to the age of eight. â€Å"Children of this age learn by exploring and investigating; therefore, their environment should support and encourage this process.†(Rebecca Isbell and Betty ExelbyRead MoreTypes Of Learning Disorders And Their Signs Essay1657 Words   |  7 PagesLearning Disabilities and Disorders Types of Learning Disorders and Their Signs Could it be that your child struggles with school? Do you observe he or she avoiding reading out loud, tackling a math problem, or writing an essay? Certainly every child has trouble with homework from time to time, if a certain area of learning is consistently difficult, it might point to a learning disorder. By being knowledgeable on all you can about learning disabilities, you can make sure your child gets the adequateRead MoreEssay on Education Starts At Home822 Words   |  4 Pagescake is a simple form of maths. Another example of helping young children with their maths is simply planning a birthday party. They have to decide how many people to invite, how many invitations they will need, how much the stamps will cost, how many prizes, lolly bags, cups, plates, and balloons need to be bought, and so on. Children often find that real life experiences help them to do their maths more easily. Another way that parents can help their children with their maths, is to give them pocketRead MoreChild Creativity And Its Effect On Children1266 Words   |  6 Pages Creativity in Children is one of the purest forms of self expression. There is nothing children want more than to openly express themselves free of judgement. Creativity, early on, is an important tool used by children to express personal feelings, thoughts, and experiences. The unfortunate problem seen in America however is the apparent trend, as described by psychologist, of an ever declining collective of creativity within our schools. This indeed is a problem since children use their creativityRead MoreReading Comprehension Issues Can Negatively Impact Math Performance1046 Words   |  5 PagesReading disabilities or reading comprehension issues can negatively impact math performance. In this lesson we will discuss the importance of connecting reading abilities with math so that students can benefit from a different approach to the subject. !!! Connecting Math and Reading â€Å"I don’t understand math.†, ‘’I hate word problems.†, â€Å"I don’t even know what the problem is asking!† If you are a math teacher, surely you have heard these comments, or some variation, from students more often thanRead MoreThe Education System Of The United States829 Words   |  4 Pagesa child deserves, is far from superior. Given the growing competition in the world it is imperative to provide a solid educational foundation especially in the field of Math, Science and Reading. Being originally born and brought up in India, I believe I know the importance and value that a good education provides. Laying an early foundation in children is extremely essential for their success and continued ability to learn better and strive harder. For example, the education system in India and manyRead MoreReflection Of Writing : My Writing Experience In The Homeroom871 Words   |  4 Pagesperson I met at a young age. She was black with dark straight hair and wore thick framed plastic glasses. Her classroom was bright, full of colors with the ABC’s in cursive writing around the border. Ms. Cologne was the type of english teacher that will take extra time out to walk around and help each student with their classwork. But she was also firm towards reading short articles out of the news papers. At the time I despised this approach of developing better writing skills, because I wanted toRead MoreImpact Of Technology On Children s Learning929 Words   |  4 Pages Technology applications in educational settings positively influence children to communicate, learn, and enhance problem-solving skills. Once technology applications are presented to children, their parents have to adjust to help them with homework, whether it may be in another language or in a certain application online. Technology, an electronic system of knowledge, generates different perspectives for children to comprehend information. Several programs encourage children to work on their homeworkRead MoreMusic Education At A Young Age1194 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen devaluing the importance of music. School districts are forced to cut spending on music education and replace it with other important classes, such as physical education. Music classes were the first to be cut because given a small to budget elementary schools, school officials have seen that music classes were unnecessary to education and believe that it has no benefit. I disagree with this statement because I believe it is crucial to have music education at a young age. Luckily, when I was

Friday, December 20, 2019

Using The Internet For Social Purposes - 1318 Words

With the advent of developing new technology, the way we receive and perceive is drastically changing. Many ‘at-home’ activities, such as watching the news on television, may become transferred onto little, mobile devices, such as an iPhone, which allows mobile device users to essentially bring their home entertainment systems with them, on the go. More than just ‘television-watching’ is losing its old sense of ‘privacy’, in fact our private lives, are becoming not so ‘private’. Everyday, people such as myself, post personal content on social media. The terminology ‘personal content’ can mean many things such as posting a personal address or telephone number online, to even posting about ‘deep’, personal issues that should essentially be†¦show more content†¦My earliest memory of posting content onto a social media website would be when I signed up for a Myspace account. I remember, I never really thought much about what I posted or who potentially could be ‘looking’ at the content I published onto my page. Which, is exactly why I feel lucky that I was never ‘targeted’ for essentially, exploiting myself to the world. As I got older and moved on to other social networking websites, I stumbled upon a site called ‘Tumblr’, which is a blogging website. I never exposed myself to any sort of ‘blogging’ environments, other than posting statuses on Facebook and Myspace (back in the day). Tumblr felt like a new found glory; a space where I could openly talk about my sexuality and life experiences with whomever I wanted to read my content. When I initially joined Tumblr, I was a freshman in high school and was dealing with a lot of excess emotions. During that time period, I was struggling with my sexuality and felt that I needed to tell people before my head blew off, but I also wanted to live a ‘normal’ life and remain ‘under the radar’. Essentially, I came out to the people who read my blog on Tumblr and gained enough advice and courage from the people who read my ‘coming out’ post, to become fully open about my sexuality. I found Tumblr as a safe-haven, a place where I

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Modern Labor Economics Theory and Public Method

Question: Discuss about the Modern Labor Economics for Theory and Public Method. Answer: Introduction Singapore has the highly urbanized trade oriented market economy. It has been ranked as the open economy because it has 7th ranked in the least corrupt country with minimum tax rate and third highest GDP per capita in the globe with respect to Purchasing Power Parity. The Singapore economy is a key foreign direct investment financier at the global level (Index of economic, 2016). This report analyzes the production output performance in Singapore economy and also describes the government measures to achieve the production output performance. It also evaluates the labor market in Singapore economy and defines the government policy to attain full employment. It also analyzes the price level in Singapore economy and exemplifies the government measures to achieve the stable price. Production Output Performance Analysis There are three different ways that are used by Singapore government to measure the GDP named output, expenditure and income approach. Further, income strategy measures income of people while output strategy is used to measures the worth of goods and services and also exploited to gain the income (Economic Caf, 2016). Further, the expenditure approach determines the expenses related to the goods and services. There are three performance indicators that used to measures the economy. It is discussed as below: GDP is important measures to evaluate the performance of Singapore economy over a given period. Further, GDP at the purchasing price is the sum amount of gross value added by every domestic manufacturer within Singapore economy. Further, it adds the tax of product and less the subsidies that do not involve in the products value (Singapore Government Securities, 2016). Moreover, GDP data is based on the current US dollar due to its official exchange rate. The real gross domestic product growth rate is determined by the yearly proportion growth rate of GDP at the market rate which is stand on stable domestic currency. Further, aggregately depends on the stable U.S. $ (Singapore MedTech portal, 2016). GDP per capita is referred to as the GDP that is separated by the population of midyear. It measures average income per person in Singapore country. Performance trend of Singapore economy From the above analysis, it is exhibited that real GDP of Singapore economy has declined from the US$3.6.344 Billion to US$292.739 Billion from 2014 to 2015. Along with this, it is analyzed that real GDP growth rate is declined from 6.0% to 2.0% from 2011 to 2015. Further, it is evaluated that GDP per capita has declined from US$56.124 to US$53.004 from 2014 to 2015 (Focus Economics, 2016). As a result, it can be said that there are several economic factors that affect the GDP of Singapore economies such as increasing interest rate, high unemployment rate, asset prices, wages, consumer confidence, infrastructure investment and high tax rate. Government measures adopted to achieve the production output performance There are different measures which are adopted by the Singapore government to achieve the production output performance includes lower interest rate, lower tax rate, declining exchange rate, and increase expenditure on infrastructure. It is evaluated that Singapore government tries to cut the interest rate in order to boost the aggregate demand. Because, the lower interest rate can decline the cost of borrowing, encouraging investment and spending of consumers in Singapore economy so it will help to increase the GDP of the country (Tan, et al., 2014). Moreover, Singapore government tries to cut down the tax rate and increasing their spending to boost the demand of consumers in Singapore economy. Since, a lower income tax increases the disposable income and increases the spending of the consumers (Rodan, 2016). Further, higher spending creates more jobs and offers the economic incentives. Additionally, Singapore government declines the exchange rate as it will be effective to make cheap the exports, mainly in electronics, chemicals, and services sector to make import expensive (Rodan, 2016). As a result, it will be beneficial to increase the GDP of the Singapore economy. From the above graph, it is illustrated that unemployment rate has declined from 2.0 % to 1.9% from 2011 to 2015 (Focus Economics, 2016). There are different causes of declining unemployment rate named lower interest rate, lower tax rate, improvement in skills of employees and increasing aggregate demand. Define Unemployment and their types in an economy Unemployment is the phenomenon that occurs when people have no work to do and they actively looking for a job. The unemployment rate is the percentage that is determined by separating the amount of jobless person by the amount of all currently working individual in the labor market (Pigou, 2013). Basically, three kinds of unemployment are found in Singapore named frictional, cyclical, and structural unemployment. Cyclical unemployment is one of the kinds of unemployment which arises due to lack of AD in the Singapore economy. Further, there is inadequate employments for each person who wish to job (Economics rush, 2016). In this type of unemployment, amount of jobless workers is larger than the amount of employment posts. Furthermore, frictional unemployment is another type of unemployment in Singapore economy. It defines the time duration between employment when an employee is seeking and switching jobs from one occupation to another (Pissarides, 2013). Besides this, structural unemployment is another type of unemployment within an economy. This type of unemployment arises due to unavailability of jobs for each person who looking for a job in the labor market (Pigou, 2013). Types of unemployment in the Singapore economy In Singapore, there are three main types of employment is available named structural, cyclical, and frictional unemployment. But, cyclical unemployment is a key basis of being without a job in Singapore because Singapore has a great outside division that is largely dependent on outside demand for the development of the economy. Due to the global downturn, global income has declined in Singapore economy consequently it leads to decline purchasing power, consumption, and net exports (Pigou, 2013). Further, demands for goods and services have declined consequently company cut back employees, which called cyclical unemployment. Government measures adopted to achieve full employment There are different measures used by the Singapore government to achieve full employment such as cutting interest rate, cutting taxes to boost the aggregate demand. Another measure is education and training, Employment subsidies, and Improve labor market flexibility. It is identified that government offers education and training to the unemployed person to build their skills and knowledge which enable the unemployed person to find out the employment in developing industries (Beveridge, 2014). For example, retrain the unemployed steel employees to have basic information technology skills so it assists the employees to search the work in the service sector. Moreover, Singapore government facilitates the subsidies for taking on continuing unemployed. It will be beneficial to build confidence and on the job training among the employees (Ehrenberg, and Smith, 2016). Furthermore, Singapore government makes policies to provide the flexible labor market because restricted labor market is the cause of increasing unemployment. Above graph depicted that inflation rate has declined from 5.2 to -0.5 from 2011 to 2015. It indicates that the value of money increases in the Singapore economy. Deflation is not necessarily bad but it can lead to economic stagnation and high unemployment. Further, it is analyzed that negative inflation occurs when the price falls due to a higher supply of goods as compared to the demand for goods (Focus Economics, 2016). Further, negative inflation occurs due to a reduction in money, credit and consumers spending in Singapore economy. Define Inflation and typical causes of inflation Inflation is the rate at which the amount of products and services is rising and the purchasing power of the money is declined. Further, the central bank of Singapore tries to set the limit inflation and avoid the deflation to the growth of the economy (Chand, 2016). There are two main reason of occurring inflation such as inflation caused by demand side is known as demand pull inflation and while it is originated by supply side then, it is known as cost-push inflation. There are different causes of demand pull inflation and cost push inflation. It is discussed as below: The main reason of occurring inflation is an increase in the money supply in the market because it leads to increase in the aggregate demand. Further, it is analyzed that high growth of nominal money supply may increase the rate of inflation in the market. Another cause is disposable income of people because it is identified that while disposable income increases then it increases in national income and decline in taxes and saving of the people. In addition to this, the cheap monetary policy is another cause that leads to rising in the money supply. It also increases aggregate demand of goods and services in the economy (Lim, and Sek, 2015). For example, while credit expands, it increases the money income of the borrowers and consequently increases aggregate demand relative to the supply. As a result, it leads to high inflation due to high monetary contribution. There are several causes of cost push inflation named shortage of factors of production, industrial disputes, and internati onal factor. It is analyzed that inflation arises due to lack of production factors named labor, raw material, power supply and capital. It leads to surplus capacity and decline in the industrial production. Further, industrial disputes such as trade union strike decline the production of firm consequently, reduces the supplies of goods (Chand, 2016). These disputes can be related to increasing in wages, decline labor hours and paid leaves, Causes of inflation in Singapore Economy In Singapore, inflation is caused by both side i.e. demand and supply. But, imported inflation which leads to cost push inflation is an important cause of inflation in Singapore economy. Singapore is an open economy and there are inadequate natural resources i.e. factors of production. Therefore, it has heavily relied on imports from other countries related to consumption goods and raw material (Chand, 2016). Moreover, exporting goods are made from imported raw material. As a result, it is analyzed that Singapore economy faced inflation due to the depreciation of the Singapore Dollar (SGD). Another cause of inflation is a lack of export competitiveness because it declines the demand for the currency of Singapore due to the overflow of Singapore dollars in the foreign exchange market. Government measures to achieve the stable price The central bank of Singapore takes a number of monetary actions to manage the quantity and quality of credit such as increases sell securities in the open market, bank rates; reserve ratio, and increases in margin requirement (Bodea, and Hicks, 2015). Along with this, Singapore government takes several fiscal measures to achieve the stable price such as reduction in unnecessary expenditure, an increase in taxes, and savings, and avoid the repayment of public debt (Wu, and Ramesh, 2014). Singapore government also makes rational wage policy, and makes policy to increase in the production which is beneficial to achieve the stable price in the Singapore economy. Conclusion It is concluded that GDP of Singapore economy has declined in 2015 as compared to previous year so the government takes several measures to achieve the production output performance such as try to cut down the interest rate, tax rate, and exchange rate. Further, it can be summarized that unemployment rate has declined in 2015 as compared to the earlier year. Therefore, Singapore government takes measure to achieve full employment named education and training, employment subsidies, and improve labor market flexibility. Along with this, it is stated that inflation rate has declined in 2015 as compared to past years so the government takes measure to achieve the price stability named control the quantity and quality of credit, reduction in unnecessary expenditure, increase in taxes, and savings, and avoid the repayment of public debt. References Beveridge, W. H. (2014).Full Employment in a Free Society (Works of William H. Beveridge): A Report(Vol. 6). UK: Routledge. Bodea, C., Hicks, R. (2015). Price stability and central bank independence: Discipline, credibility, and democratic institutions.International Organization,69(01), 35-61. Chand, S. (2016). Inflation: Meaning, Causes and Effects of Inflation. Retrieved from: https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/inflation/inflation-meaning-causes-and-effects-effects-of-inflation/29293/ Economic Caf (2016). Economic Growth. Retrieved from: https://www.economicscafe.com.sg/economics-lecture-notes-chapter-11/ Economics rush (2016). Possible causes of unemployment in Singapore. Retrieved from: https://economicsrush.wordpress.com/2014/02/22/explain-possible-causes-of-unemployment-in-singapore-10m/ Ehrenberg, R. G., Smith, R. S. (2016).Modern labor economics: Theory and public policy. UK: Routledge. Focus Economics (2016). Inflation in Singapore. Retrieved from: https://www.focus-economics.com/country-indicator/singapore/inflation Focus Economics (2016). Singapore-GDP. Retrieved from: https://www.focus-economics.com/country-indicator/singapore/gdp Focus Economics (2016). Unemployment in Singapore. Retrieved from: https://www.focus-economics.com/country-indicator/singapore/unemployment Index of economic (2016). Singapore Economy. Retrieved from: https://www.heritage.org/index/country/singapore Lim, Y. C., Sek, S. K. (2015). An examination on the determinants of inflation.Journal of Economics, Business and Management,3(7), 678-682. Pigou, A. C. (2013).Theory of unemployment. UK: Routledge. Pissarides, C. A. (2013). Unemployment in the great recession.Economica,80(319), 385-403. Rodan, G. (2016).The political economy of Singapore's industrialization: national state and international capital. Berlin: Springer. Singapore Government Securities (2016). The Singapore Economy. Retrieved from: https://www.sgs.gov.sg/The-SGS-Market/The-Singapore-Economy.aspx Singapore MedTech portal (2016). Singapores Economic Policies and Key Government Agencies. Retrieved from: https://www.medtech.sg/singapores-economic-policies-key-government-agencies/ Tan, F., Lean, H. H., Khan, H. (2014). Growth and environmental quality in Singapore: Is there any trade-off?.Ecological Indicators,47, 149-155. The world bank (2016). GDP (current US$). Retrieved from: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.CD?end=2015locations=SGstart=2011view=chart Wu, X., Ramesh, M. (2014). Market imperfections, government imperfections, and policy mixes: policy innovations in Singapore.Policy sciences,47(3), 305-320.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Physiology and Human Anatomy

Questions: 1. a) Filtration, secretion and excretion b) Clearance , excretion and glomerular filtration rate 2. a) What types of anabolic steroids would they use b) What could be some undesirable effects of taking such steroids? 3. Why is the endocrine system considered one of the integrative systems of the body? Answers: 1. a) Filtration, secretion and excretion Filtration Filtration is the movement of water and solutes from plasma to the renal tubule that occurs in the renal corpuscle. at any given time about 20% of the plasma volume passing through the glomerulus is filtered. In other words, about180 litersof fluid are filtered by the kidneys every day. That means, the entire plasma volume (which is about 3 liters) is filtered almost 60 times a day. Filtration is primarily driven in the capillaries of the glomerulus by fluid pressure (blood pressure). It has to be remember that kidneys filter much more fluid than the actual amount of urine excreted (which about 1.5 liters per day). This is essential for the kidneys to rapidly remove waste and toxins from the plasma efficiently. Secretion After filtration has occurred, secretion of additional substances into the tubular fluid by the tubules continues. This enhances the kidney's ability to eliminate certain wastes and toxins. It is also essential for the regulation of plasma potassium concentrations and pH. Excretion The result of the above processes is excretion, which goes into the urine. Initially the original concentration of a substance in the tubule fluid may be close to that of plasma, subsequent filtration, re-absorption and secretion can dramatically alter the final concentration in the urine. The amount of a particular substance that is excreted is determined can be written in simple formula: E.g. amount filtered - amount reabsorbed + amount secreted= amount excreted b) Clearance , excretion and glomerular filtration rate Renal clearance is a measurement that allows one to analyze the activity of the kidney. The definition for clearance could be defined is thevolume of plasmafrom which a substance is completely removed by the kidney in a minute. As an example if we say, the clearance for urea is 65 ml/min. This means that the kidney removes all of the urea in 65 ml of plasma in one minute. Every minute approximately 625 ml of plasma goes to the kidney. This is called the renal plasma flow. Some of the fluid leaves the kidney in the plasma while some leaves the kidney as urine. There are only two ways for a substance to end up in the urine: the substance either it isnot filtered but issecretedby from theperitubular capillariesinto thetubules or it is filteredat theglomerulusand then notreabsorbedfrom thetubules,. In either instance, the substance ends up in thecollecting ductand has been excreted into the urine (de Souza and Hallak, 2011). Of the 625 ml/min of plasma that goes to theglomerulus, 125 ml/min are filtered intoBowman's Capsuleforming the filtrate (this is known as the glomerular filtration rate). The remaining 500 ml/min remain in the blood and enter into theperitubular capillaries. Of the 125 ml/min which was filtered initally , almost all of the water in this fluid is reabsorbed and put back into the blood. It is important to remember that the composition of the filtrate inBowman's Capsuleisidenticalto the composition of the plasma except that the filtrate has no or very few proteins. It has to be remember that this is not true for the urine. This means, for example, that the concentration of glucose in the filtrate inBowman's Capsuleis the same as that in the plasma. Glomerular filtration rate GFR - glomerular filtration rate is the test to measure ones level of kidney function and which determine if there are any kidney disease is present or not. It can be calculated from the results of age, body size blood, gender, and creatinine test. If the GFR number is low, kidneys are not working properly as they should. The glomerular filtration rate is 125ml/min in a normal person but person with diabetes, high blood pressure or any other cardiovascular diseases shows altered rate of glomerular filtration. 2. a) What types of anabolic steroids would they use Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones, which mimics the structure and function of male hormone testosterone and androgens (Bowman, 1990). Types of anabolic steroids used by athelets are Testosterone Nandrolone Boldenone Stanozolol Dan azol Mesterolone b) What could be some undesirable effects of taking such steroids? Kidneys are involved in filtration and removal of metabolic byproduct from the body. When steroid compounds cause strains in the renal structure. Because of anabolic steroids blood pressure most likely to rise in the body as well as in the kidney and this high blood pressure glomerular filtration rate are severely hampered. Along with kidney dysfunction prostate enlargement, testicular atrophies, liver dysfunction, hair loss, depression , gyncomastia , cardiovascular disease are also observed because of abuses or misuses of anabolic steroids(de Souza and Hallak, 2011). 3. Why is the endocrine system considered one of the integrative systems of the body? The endocrine system is considered one of the integrative systems of the body because the hormones produced by the system act locally as well as different other parts of the body. Hormones from the endocrine system, they cross talk to the cell and tissues of different organs and systems of the body and maintains integrity throughout the system. As per George P Chrousos Cells communicate with each other through molecular messengers, the hormones. The simple definition of a hormone as an intercellular messenger is much more inclusive than the original one, which limited the hormones to substances produced by specialized multicellular organsthe glandsthat circulated in blood and acted on distant target organs. This simplification allowed single cells to be considered glands or targets of hormones, or both, and eliminated blood circulation as a prerequisite. The concept of endocrine function thus was expanded to paracrine, autocrine, juxtacrine, and intracrine functions, whereas the classic endocrine system, which included the traditional endocrine axes, was expanded to every organ and cell in the body that produced and responded to hormones. (Chrousos, 2007) References: Astor, B., Shaikh, S. and Chaudhry, M. (2013). Associations of endogenous markers of kidney function with outcomes. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 22(3), pp.331-335. BASELINE TOTAL KIDNEY VOLUME IS ASSOCIATED WITH WORSENING OF KIDNEY FUNCTION INDEPENDENTLY OF BASELINE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN PATIENTS WITH AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE. (2014). American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 63(5), p.B90. Hori, Y., Murayama, T., Fukushima, K. and Takahashi, H. (2011). Relations between Glomerular Filtration Rate of Chronic Kidney Disease with Cardiac Size and Function in Patients with Chronic Atrial Fibrillation. 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